insect pests

Cornell’s Juliet Carroll Earns Excellence in IPM Award

juliet-carroll-new-york-state-berry-growers-association.jpg

Dr. Juliet Carroll, Fruit IPM Coordinator at Cornell University, earned the Excellence in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Award from the New York State Integrated Pest Management Program (NYSIPM) at the Viticulture day of the B.E.V. (Business, Enology, Viticulture) conference in Rochester. The award honors individuals who encourage the adoption of IPM in their businesses, schools, communities, and farms, and who develop new tools and tactics for sharing these practices.

 

Dr. Carroll spearheaded the expansion of NEWA, a website and network that allows growers to understand how the weather will affect fungal and insect pests, and takes the guesswork out of their pest-management strategy. Carroll ran NEWA for over a decade. Under her leadership, NEWA went from 45 weather stations in New York State to over 500 in 12 states. Her work, along with Wayne Wilcox and Greg Loeb, on improving the user experience with the grape disease and grape berry moth models on NEWA, had an enormous impact on the implementation of grape IPM in New York.

 

Dr. Carroll also led the development of Trac software. Introduced in the early 2000s, the software simplified and digitized pesticide recordkeeping for large and small growers and processors alike. It allows farmers to input the information once, and generate customized reports for different processors. The software also includes reference to “IPM Elements” for grapes and other crops—a tool that helps growers assess their pest management practices.

 

Dr. Carroll built Trac software for five fruit crops, and partnered with a colleague to create TracTurfgrass for golf, lawns, sports fields and sod farms. Luke Haggerty, grower relations representative for Constellation Brands, calls Carroll’s TracGrape software “a true breakthrough” in recordkeeping. Of her work with NEWA, Haggerty says, “Julie has always been very proactive in developing and delivering the products needed for our growers to produce grapes in an environmentally and economically sustainable way.”

 

Tim Martinson, Cornell Cooperative Extension Viticulture specialist, noted, “IPM is built on information and decision-making tools. Juliet has built TracGrape and NEWA into useful, practical tools for growers.”

 

Dr. Carroll also co-edited organic production and IPM guides for grapes and several berry crops, and has regularly presented at Lake Erie Regional Grape Growers’ conferences and Coffee Pot meetings. She has conducted research on devastating pests, such as spotted wing drosophila (SWD), investigating whether hungry hummingbirds can provide meaningful control.

 

In addition, Dr. Carroll has chaired the Northeast IPM SWD working groups for the past decade, bringing research scientists, growers, industry reps, and extension educators from across the region together to help find solutions. Carroll has also helped fruit growers with bird management.

 

Learn more about integrated pest management at nysipm.cornell.edu.

Controls for SWD, Summer Beetles, and Brown Marmorated Stink Bugs

We’re experience a period of high insect activity this year, with rain, warm days, and cool nights providing an ideal breeding ground for three challenging pests: spotted wing drosophila (SWD), whose numbers began to explode in mid-July, summer beetles (especially Japanese beetles), and brown marmorated stink bug. Senior Extension Associate and entomologist Peter Jentsch of Cornell University’s Hudson Valley Laboratory recommends the following controls.  

 

Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD)

Spotted wing drosophila on raspberry. Photo by Hannah Burrack, North Carolina State University, Bugwood.org.

Spotted wing drosophila on raspberry. Photo by Hannah Burrack, North Carolina State University, Bugwood.org.

With raspberry, blackberry, strawberry, blueberry, and sweet and tart cherry all very susceptible to SWD, good management is a must. Follow these general rules:

  • Traps are the best method for monitoring the population. Jentsch recommends making traps out of red plastic 16-ounce Solo cups and lids; get the directions here. Hang several traps in each crop.
  • Sample fruit for infestation. Choose unripened fruit and look for evidence of egg laying and larval feeding: small holes with tiny white breathing tubes. When the berry is gently squeezed, it may leak juice. Infested berries may also leave a juice stain on their container when picked.
  • Apply insecticide treatments from this Cornell-approved chart no more than seven days apart in blueberry, and every three to four days in cherry, raspberry, and blueberry. Reapply after rains. Rotate according to mode of action.
  • Chill berries immediately after harvest—at 32 to 33 degrees F—to halt the development of larvae and eggs.

 

Japanese Beetles and Other Summer Beetles

Japanese beetle. Photo by USDA ARS Photo Unit, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Bugwood.org.

Japanese beetle. Photo by USDA ARS Photo Unit, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Bugwood.org.

Japanese beetles are considered one of the most devastating pests for 300 species of plant in this region of the country. Multicolored Asian ladybird beetle (MALB), the rose chafer (RC), adult plum curculio (PC) are also prevalent in the Northeast. Prevent them from feeding on foliage with:

  • Carbaryl or Sevin, as a liquid XLR Plus, 4F or 80S powder.
  • Leverage 2.7SE. According to Jentsch, this “should be reserved for those situations when the pest complex to be treated is appropriately matched to the combination of active ingredients and modes of action contained in the product.”
  • Japanese beetle bag traps. These inexpensive traps, which use pheromones and floral scents, are very effective in luring and killing Japanese beetles. However, when placed near crops, they can encourage a large number of insects to move into the crop, causing even more damage. Jentsch warns, “If they are used, place the bags a considerable distance away from your orchard or vineyard so as to reduce the population in your crop. They will fill quickly and need to be emptied frequently.”

 

Brown Marmorated Stink Bug

Brown marmorated stink bug. Photo by Kristie Graham, USDA ARS, Bugwood.org.

Brown marmorated stink bug. Photo by Kristie Graham, USDA ARS, Bugwood.org.

A year-round pest, the brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) is a household nuisance in winter and spring and a serious agricultural pest in summer and fall. It has been observed feeding and reproducing in blueberries, raspberries, blackberries, blueberries, and caneberries. BMSB causes discoloration and sunken areas of green fruits at the feeding site, and softening and necrosis in mature fruits. Control them with:

  • Pyramid traps baited with BMSB aggregation pheromone and methyl decatrienoate. Because BMSB prefers to live along the perimeter of a field, place traps is along a forested edge adjacent to your crops.
  • Employ border sprays, according to this chart, especially on large fields. Because the insecticides that are most effective on BMSB also kills the insect’s natural enemies, use them only as needed. As the BMSB SCRI CAP Small Fruit Commodity Team cautions, “Management for BMSB in small fruit crops is difficult because the most effective insecticides for BMSB cannot be used during the period when there are repeated harvests of berry fields. Chemical control may be further complicated by the need to conserve insecticides for use against spotted wing drosophila, another disruptive invasive species, during the harvest period in order to observe requirements for maximum applications per season.”

For further reading, visit the Jentsch Lab blog:

Spotted Wing Drosophila

Summer Beetle Management

Using Attract and Kill Stations to Monitor Brown Marmorated Stink Bug

 

SWD ALERT!

spotted wing drosophila new york state berry growers association

SWD ALERT!

 

Cornell has reported sustained SWD catches in several counties. Numbers are not high yet, but have been increasing. Be vigilant in your trap and fruit monitoring, weeding, and irrigation/drainage, and employ a spraying routine that works with your picking schedule. Follow this basic guide:

  • Maintain an open canopy to increase sunlight and decrease humidity
  • Eliminate weeds within rows to increase sunlight penetration and improve spray penetration into and deposition on the canopy
  • Repair leaking drip lines and avoid overhead irrigation when possible. Allow the ground and mulch surface to dry before irrigating, and eliminate areas that encourage puddles.  
  • If you’ve set your own traps, check them regularly—daily, if possible. Females usually arrive first, but males are quick to follow.   
  • Check your fruit regularly. Pick groupings of 15-25 ripe fruit from different locations in your field, especially along the edges. Lightly squeeze each fruit. In a resealable bag, mix 1 cup salt and 1 gallon water. Add the fruit and mix well. After 30 minutes, check for small white larvae floating at the top. Repeat for each fruit grouping.
  • Apply pesticides every 5 to 7 days; repeat if it rains.
  • Rotate pesticides to prevent resistance.         

Visit Cornell's blog for detailed information on monitoring and growing best practices during SWD season. Download the university’s list of approved SWD insecticides here.