Berry growing

Cornell Small Fruit Survey Needs Your Input

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Are you interested in diversifying your farmers’ market, farm stand, or CSA offerings with specialty fruit crops? Have you ever thought about growing currants, kiwiberries, goji berries, beach plums, or other “unusual” fruits?

Cornell University needs your input to help guide a project that aims to develop growing recommendations and enterprise budgets for unusual fruit crops in New York. Fill out their online survey now through May 31, 2019.

The Opioid Epidemic and Agriculture

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The truth about opioids in the United States is sobering: no corner of the country remains untouched by the epidemic. With access to prevention, treatment, and support services sorely lacking in rural areas, these regions are now surpassing cities in rates of death from opioid overdose. Suzanne Flaum, Gleaning Assistant for Cornell Cooperative Extension of Orange County writes, “Recent reports show that those who work in occupations with higher rates of injury (farming, construction, roofing, etc.) where workers are less able to take time off to heal are more likely to medicate acute or chronic pain symptoms with opioids, leading to increased likelihood of addiction.”

The American Farm Bureau Federation and the National Farmers Union conducted a study in 2017. They found that 74 percent of farmers and farm workers report having been affected by opioid abuse, either by taking (and developing addictions to) these medications themselves, or by knowing someone who has dealt with an addiction. And only 38 percent of those people believe that local care would be effective, affordable, or covered by their health insurance.

If you, a friend, or family member is struggling with opioid use or addiction, CCE Orange County has collected these resources for finding necessary, life-saving help:

Can a Robot Be the Future of Berry Crop Pollination?

Photo by Yu Gu, West Virginia University

Photo by Yu Gu, West Virginia University

Recognizing both the sobering statistics for colonies of pollinators and the steadily increasing global population, scientists at West Virginia University, in a project funded by the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture’s National Robotics Initiative, have created a robot called the BrambleBee. Says Dr. Yu Gu, Associate Professor of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at WVU, “We are not aiming at replacing bees. We are hoping to use the robotic pollinator in places where bees are not available or not enough.”

 

This includes high tunnels, where the growing season can be extended, but where pollination is more difficult because light diffusion makes it harder for honeybees to navigate the crops.

 

So far, the BrambleBee has been tested on blackberry plantings. Like a self-driving car, the BrambleBee is a robot that learns to navigate specific places. Using lidar—a detection system that works similarly to radar, but uses light from a laser instead of radio waves—the robot first creates a 3-D map of a greenhouse. It then passes through the rows again, with the purpose of reaching as many flowers as possible with its mechanical arm. After positioning itself in front of a plant, the BrambleBee takes photos of the plants and flowers and creates an even higher-resolution map.

 

When it finds a flower that’s ready for pollination, the BrambleBee extends a small 3-D-printed brush with flexible polyurethane bristles—modeled on the scopa, or hairs of the honeybee—to gently loosen the pollen. This transfers the pollen from the anthers to the pistils for pollination. The BrambleBee is thought to be careful enough to work alongside bees, as opposed to miniature pollinating drones, which may injure bees as they hover over and around crops.

 

Says Dr. Nicole Waterland, Associate Professor of Horticulture at WVU, “A robotic pollinator does not need to rest and could potentially pollinate continually.” Another benefit of the BrambleBee: the ability to work in multiple locations. Neighboring farms could share the cost of a unit and then transfer the robot between them for autonomous pollination.

 

The BrambleBee is still in the experimental stage, but early results are promising for it and other robotic tools. “We hope this is the beginning of a new era in crop production using robotic systems,” Waterland says. “We would like to utilize this platform as a start to create a robot that could act as a grower’s assistant. We hope the robot could help with monitoring the health status of the plant, e.g., monitoring water status and nutrient needs.”

FY 2019 H-2B Cap Relief Update

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The Federation of Employers and Workers of America (FEWA) has shared this important update.

 

Last month, the Appropriations Committees filed the conference agreement on the FY 19 Labor-HHS and Department of Defense “minibus” appropriations bill, which includes a continuing resolution (CR) to maintain funding for the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and other federal Departments through December 7, 2018.  

 

What does this mean for H-2B?

The conference report that was filed would continue the Department of Labor (DOL) H-2B provisions that have been included in past funding bills.  No immediate changes to the program.

Cap relief is not included in this “minibus” bill that is expected to be signed into law.

 

What does this mean for H-2B Cap Relief?

The CR for the DHS though December 7 is important, as it relieves the pressure of a governmental shutdown.

The DHS funding bill passed by the House Appropriations Committee in July would exempt returning workers from the annual H-2B visa cap, along with other adjustments. The Senate Appropriations Committee–passed version of FY 2019 DHS funding bill asks DHS to consider a more equitable annual allocation of the 66,000 visas. 

Congress will not take up an FY 2019 funding bill for DHS after the November 7 elections. THIS WILL BE OUR OPPORTUNITY FOR H-2B CAP RELIEF. 

 

What can you do?

After this bill is signed into law, House members will be returning to their home districts to begin campaigning for election day. Meet with your representative at home and stress the importance the H-2B program has on your business and the need for immediate cap relief. View H-2B Cap Relief Talking Points.  

After November 7 elections, Congress will return to DC, and within the first week concentrate on electing leadership roles. Once that is complete they will have until December 7 to negotiate the remaining bills to fund the government. THIS WILL BE OUR OPPORTUNITY FOR THE H-2B RETURNING WORKER EXEMPTION. 

 

FEWA and the H-2B Workforce Coalition continue to urge Congress to include the House cap relief language in a final appropriations bill. FEWA’s Jarrod Sharp and Robin Svec will be in Washington, DC, later this month to further advocate for this language.

 

In addition to continuing to push for Congress to pass H-2B cap relief we will let you know when Congress votes on this legislation.

Controls for SWD, Summer Beetles, and Brown Marmorated Stink Bugs

We’re experience a period of high insect activity this year, with rain, warm days, and cool nights providing an ideal breeding ground for three challenging pests: spotted wing drosophila (SWD), whose numbers began to explode in mid-July, summer beetles (especially Japanese beetles), and brown marmorated stink bug. Senior Extension Associate and entomologist Peter Jentsch of Cornell University’s Hudson Valley Laboratory recommends the following controls.  

 

Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD)

Spotted wing drosophila on raspberry. Photo by Hannah Burrack, North Carolina State University, Bugwood.org.

Spotted wing drosophila on raspberry. Photo by Hannah Burrack, North Carolina State University, Bugwood.org.

With raspberry, blackberry, strawberry, blueberry, and sweet and tart cherry all very susceptible to SWD, good management is a must. Follow these general rules:

  • Traps are the best method for monitoring the population. Jentsch recommends making traps out of red plastic 16-ounce Solo cups and lids; get the directions here. Hang several traps in each crop.
  • Sample fruit for infestation. Choose unripened fruit and look for evidence of egg laying and larval feeding: small holes with tiny white breathing tubes. When the berry is gently squeezed, it may leak juice. Infested berries may also leave a juice stain on their container when picked.
  • Apply insecticide treatments from this Cornell-approved chart no more than seven days apart in blueberry, and every three to four days in cherry, raspberry, and blueberry. Reapply after rains. Rotate according to mode of action.
  • Chill berries immediately after harvest—at 32 to 33 degrees F—to halt the development of larvae and eggs.

 

Japanese Beetles and Other Summer Beetles

Japanese beetle. Photo by USDA ARS Photo Unit, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Bugwood.org.

Japanese beetle. Photo by USDA ARS Photo Unit, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Bugwood.org.

Japanese beetles are considered one of the most devastating pests for 300 species of plant in this region of the country. Multicolored Asian ladybird beetle (MALB), the rose chafer (RC), adult plum curculio (PC) are also prevalent in the Northeast. Prevent them from feeding on foliage with:

  • Carbaryl or Sevin, as a liquid XLR Plus, 4F or 80S powder.
  • Leverage 2.7SE. According to Jentsch, this “should be reserved for those situations when the pest complex to be treated is appropriately matched to the combination of active ingredients and modes of action contained in the product.”
  • Japanese beetle bag traps. These inexpensive traps, which use pheromones and floral scents, are very effective in luring and killing Japanese beetles. However, when placed near crops, they can encourage a large number of insects to move into the crop, causing even more damage. Jentsch warns, “If they are used, place the bags a considerable distance away from your orchard or vineyard so as to reduce the population in your crop. They will fill quickly and need to be emptied frequently.”

 

Brown Marmorated Stink Bug

Brown marmorated stink bug. Photo by Kristie Graham, USDA ARS, Bugwood.org.

Brown marmorated stink bug. Photo by Kristie Graham, USDA ARS, Bugwood.org.

A year-round pest, the brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) is a household nuisance in winter and spring and a serious agricultural pest in summer and fall. It has been observed feeding and reproducing in blueberries, raspberries, blackberries, blueberries, and caneberries. BMSB causes discoloration and sunken areas of green fruits at the feeding site, and softening and necrosis in mature fruits. Control them with:

  • Pyramid traps baited with BMSB aggregation pheromone and methyl decatrienoate. Because BMSB prefers to live along the perimeter of a field, place traps is along a forested edge adjacent to your crops.
  • Employ border sprays, according to this chart, especially on large fields. Because the insecticides that are most effective on BMSB also kills the insect’s natural enemies, use them only as needed. As the BMSB SCRI CAP Small Fruit Commodity Team cautions, “Management for BMSB in small fruit crops is difficult because the most effective insecticides for BMSB cannot be used during the period when there are repeated harvests of berry fields. Chemical control may be further complicated by the need to conserve insecticides for use against spotted wing drosophila, another disruptive invasive species, during the harvest period in order to observe requirements for maximum applications per season.”

For further reading, visit the Jentsch Lab blog:

Spotted Wing Drosophila

Summer Beetle Management

Using Attract and Kill Stations to Monitor Brown Marmorated Stink Bug

 

A Dozen Reasons Why the EWG “Dirty Dozen” List Is Not an Ethical Guide for Produce Selection

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By Marvin Pritts, horticulture professor, Cornell University

 

Each year, the Environmental Working Group (EWG) puts out a list of “dirty” fruits and vegetables that consumers are supposed to avoid because they contain pesticide residues. For the third year in a row, strawberries were number one on the list. The list is misleading, having been created without consideration of several important scientific and social/cultural issues, but its popularity with the press forces growers to struggle with educating customers who have bought into the EWG’s misleading messaging.

Here are some talking points to share with customers to explain why the EWG’s “dirty dozen” list shouldn’t be used to guide their produce selection.

  1. Data used by the EWG counts the presence/absence of a residue, but does not consider the total amount of residue. This is not a valid method of assessing risk, since the amount of a residue is critical for determining if that residue is toxic.
  2. Pesticide residues in plants are miniscule and are not know to have any health effects in mammals, whether the mammal is a baby or a sensitive adult. Nearly all fruits and vegetables have levels far below (often a million times lower) levels known to cause physiological effects in humans. Just because a residue exists does not mean it is toxic at such low levels.
  3. Growers who rotate pesticides to reduce the risk of developing pesticide resistance will score more poorly on the EWG scale than growers who use large amounts of a single pesticide to control a pest.
  4. Residue data from crops vary greatly depending on where a crop is grown. For example, strawberries grown in the warm, wet climate of Florida receive far more pesticide applications than strawberries grown in the Northeast, yet strawberries are ranked number one for residues, regardless of how and where they are grown. This creates a major disadvantage for local growers.
  5. Plants produce natural pesticides so they don’t get eaten by pests. The amount of naturally produced pesticides is estimated to exceed human-applied residues by ten-thousandfold. The amount of synthetic pesticide residue is dwarfed by the amount of naturally occurring pest-deterring chemicals already present in plants.
  6. Plants not treated to manage pests often have higher levels of natural pesticides.
  7. Human systems have developed mechanisms to detoxify naturally occurring chemicals in the food we eat. These detoxification mechanisms work on both natural and synthetic chemicals, keeping us safe as long as these detoxification mechanisms are not overwhelmed.                    
  8. Organically grown food also may contain pesticide residues. Organic growers face the same insect, fungal, and weed pests as conventional growers, so they often will use chemical sprays to manage them. Neither the organic residues nor the synthetic residues have ever been shown to be harmful to humans.
  9. The health benefits of eating a strawberry—ranked number one on the “dirty dozen” list—far exceed any detriment from consuming a pesticide residue. For example, strawberries have more vitamin C than oranges by weight and are high in antioxidants and nutrients.
  10. The EWG list discourages consumers from eating healthy fruits and vegetables such as spinach, tomatoes, grapes, and apples, which also rank high on the list and are known to be extremely good for health.
  11. Consumers already eat far fewer fruits and vegetables than are recommended for good health. This is especially true for low-income populations. The EWG list can do harm to low-income groups by discouraging good eating habits.
  12. The EWG approach to ranking risk is not supported by any scientific organization, has never undergone peer-review, and has never been published in a scientific journal. Recommendations regarding a person’s ability to reduce pesticide-residue exposure by altering eating habits are not supported by the data

How to Develop an E-mail Program for Your Farm

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While it may seem tempting to let go of your e-mail marketing in favor of social media, especially during the busy growing season, there are several compelling reasons why you’ll want to stay on top of your e-mail list, and keep promoting your farm or farm store.

1. Most customers, including 71% of millennials, prefer to hear from businesses they follow through e-mail first. True, you’ll often hear people say they get too many e-mails, but studies have proven time and again that this doesn’t dissuade them from staying on their favorite business’s e-mail list. And with many social media channels—Facebook being the most prominent example—modifying their algorithms to make it harder for a business’s content to be seen in the news feed, you’ll get much more visibility from e-mail.

2. E-mail subscribers are your most loyal customers, and are several times more likely to spread good word of mouth to friends, family, and their community.

3. E-mail is “owned” media, which means you have complete access to your entire e-mail list at all times, and can put out any content you think will inform and entertain your audience. There are best practices for e-mail content, but on the whole, this offers much more freedom for you to tell the stories you want to tell—without being filtered out by a pesky algortithm.

4. E-mail provides the highest return on investment (ROI) of all types of digital marketing—104% compared to social media’s 25% and display advertising’s 13%. If the other three points didn’t convince you that keeping up with your e-mail list is important, this is one super-persuasive case.

E-mail marketing generally takes one of two forms: a promotional e-mail or a newsletter. Promotional e-mails usually highlight a specific product or service and are meant to inspire the customer to take quick action: buy a product, register for an event, or create an account, for example.

E-mail newsletters are informative in nature, and give customers something interesting or entertaining to read, such as gardening or cooking tips, or links to articles about the health benefits of berries. They may link to a product for sale, but their focus is on informing rather than selling.

It’s possible to send both newsletters and promotional e-mails to the same list of subscribers, though you’ll want to determine in advance how many of each you plan to send, to keep the best balance. You can also employ segmenting, or sending certain content to one group of customers.

 

How to Create a Marketing E-mail

Depending on your list size, the number of times per month you plan to mail, and the amount of bells and whistles you want, there are a variety of e-mail distribution services that fit the bill. Mailchimp and Robly tend to be the most user-friendly, and have a larger selection of attractive drag-and-drop templates that make it easy to design great-looking e-mails. Constant Contact, one of the original e-mail distributors, has a long history of consistency, but is not as intuitive to use and often has a less modern look.

No matter which one you choose, if you have fewer than 200 subscribers, you can start with a free version of the service. It takes only a few minutes to create and account and get started on creating your first e-mail. If you'd like to walk through the process on screen, YouTube has dozens of short videos dedicated to setting up an e-mail in Mailchimp or Robly.

 

What Should Each E-mail Include?

There are a lot of nuances to e-mail marketing, but in general, each e-mail you send should have:

  • Your contact information
  • Your logo
  • Links to your social media

If you’re sending a newsletter, try including a brief article on a relevant topic, and 2 or 3 additional items you’d like to highlight—these could be products that are currently in stock in your store, a list of upcoming farmers’ market appearances, or a link to something interesting that’s happening in your community.

If you’re sending a promotional e-mail, focus on one item (e.g., strawberries) or one category of items (e.g., small fruits). Instead of simply selling the item itself, however, provide interesting related content that uses your product—for instance, a recipe for a summer cocktail that includes strawberries, or tips on how to freeze your bounty of U-pick strawberries. Don’t forget to mention that the item is in stock, and the hours when customers can buy it.

 

How Long Should a Marketing E-mail Be?

Considering that you have about 8 seconds to catch a reader’s attention, short and sweet is a good basic rule! Stick to 300 words or less for a featured newsletter article, and 100 words or less for secondary articles. Whenever possible, break up longer passages of text with visual elements such as bulleted or numbered lists, or boldface run-in heads, like the ones at the beginning of this post.  

 

How Often Should You Send a Marketing E-mail?

Because most of your sales happen during a condensed period of time, it’s best to send e-mails to your customers weekly during the growing season, to keep them updated on what they can buy from you and where they can find you.

You can easily cut back during the slower seasons: consider biweekly mailings during the ramping-up period in spring, when you have just a handful of products in stock, and monthly e-mails during the off season. Yes, you should definitely keep sending e-mails even during the off season! Customers won’t expect you to have products in inventory, but they will appreciate hearing from you on topics like winterizing your home garden, how to incorporate different foods into holiday menus, and what’s going on at your farm—whether that’s a new barn being raised, a picturesque snowfall, or your livestock or pet mascots frolicking outdoors.

It’s okay to make these e-mails shorter; the point isn’t to write New Yorker-length features about farming, but to keep your farm top of mind for customers, and to cultivate the image that you’re a resource for more than just a pint of berries. The attention to serving your customers will pay off with increased customer loyalty and sales.

 

Sending marketing e-mails or newsletters isn’t as hard as it might seem, and it’s one of the best ways to keep in regular contact with customers and encourage them to spread the word about your farm to friends. Spend a little time up front on planning, and you’ll reap the rewards later.

Got a question about e-mail marketing? If you’re a current member, get in touch with our communications manager, Robin Catalano, at nysbga@gmail.com.

 

Looking to Boost Exposure for Your Farm? Try Taste NY

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With the growing season on the horizon, now is the time to look into opportunities to showcase your fruit outside the confines of your farm or typical farmers’ market appearances. Eighteen Taste NY market locations at service areas on the New York State Thruway will soon be open to visitors, and offer potential exposure to more than 200 million travelers who might not otherwise be able to try your products. Governor Andrew Cuomo’s office reports that sales of food products at Taste NY markets topped $13 million in 2017.

On the value of participating Taste NY, State Agriculture Commissioner Richard Ball says, “Taste NY farmers’ markets give our regional Thruway Service Areas a unique flavor and provide our farmers with a great opportunity to connect directly with new consumers. I encourage New York’s producers to consider participating this upcoming season and give travelers a chance to taste our agricultural products that are among the best in the world.”

View a list of participating service areas. To learn more about selling your fruit through Taste NY markets, e-mail TravelersServices@thruway.ny.gov.

About Taste NY

The Taste NY initiative has seen steady growth and recognition since it was created in 2013 by Governor Cuomo. The program reported sales of $1.5 million in 2014, tripled those figures to $4.5 million in 2015, and $13.1 million in 2016. Taste NY, which is overseen by the Department of Agriculture and Markets, has created opportunities for local producers to showcase their goods at a variety of venues throughout the State and at large public events, such as the Great New York State Fair and the Barclays Tournament at Bethpage State Park. It has also helped the farms and companies participating in the program to reach more customers, increase online sales, and, in many cases, expand the processing capacity of their business. Taste NY’s food and beverage businesses also support the State’s farmers by using New York grown and produced ingredients in their products.

Today, New York products sold under Taste NY branding are available in more than 70 locations throughout the State as well as the New York State Office of Trade and Tourism in San Juan, Puerto Rico.

For more information about Taste NY, visit www.taste.ny.gov. Connect with Taste NY through FacebookTwitterInstagram and Pinterest.

 

 

Getting Ready for the Season and H-2A Applications

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With a huge increase in applications to the H-2A guestworker program over the past few years an average processing time of 90 days, it’s critical for growers to submit their paperwork as early as possible, to avoid some of the delays we experienced last year in getting workers onto our farms. If you haven’t gotten started on your applications yet, now is the time to get moving. Here are some good guidelines to remember:

Review your farm’s work activities and rules, including related disciplinary policies (e.g., verbal warning, written warning, termination). Write them down; you’ll need them for your H-2A contract.

Create job descriptions for your H-2A workers. Be specific about the type of work and the physical requirements (e.g., bending, lifting, climbing a ladder, driving). Remember that, by law, your H-2A hires area allowed to work on only those tasks.

Determine whether you prefer to apply directly to the program, with or without the assistance of an agent, or hire a contractor to handle it. If you choose a contractor, clarify all responsibilities and fees up front, ask about compliance processes, and request references of previous customers, so you can make sure your money will be well spent.

Confirm that you can secure appropriate housing, including cooking facilities, if meals won’t be provided.

Create a plan for worker transportation, both to and from your farm at the start and end of the season, as well as daily transportation from worker housing to your farm and weekly trips to the grocery store. If you’re using your own van or car, make sure it’s up-to-date on maintenance and repairs.

For more considerations on the benefits and drawbacks of the H-2A guestworker program, read this overview from our neighbors at Community Involved in Supporting Agriculture.

And don’t start this season without checking out this downloadable PDF from Texas A&M on the difference between an Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) audit and a raid, and how you can be prepared for either.

A Look at Our 2017 Berry Production Workshop

We're sharing our favorite moments from our late-August Berry Production Workshop, sponsored by Cornell University and Cornell CCE. Check out our October newsletter for the full summary of the event, which brought together scientists, growers, and ag professionals from across New York State.

Join Us for a FREE Berry Production Workshop on August 29!

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August 29, 2017
5:00–7:00 p.m.
The Berry Patch
15589 NY-22, Stephentown, NY

If you’re unsure whether your berry crops have been affected by SWD, or even if you just want to learn more about growing happy, healthy berries, join us for this exclusive workshop, sponsored by Cornell University and Cornell Cooperative Extension. Bring your own fruit, and test for SWD right here!


Then hear experts from Cornell University and Cornell CCE, New York State IPM, the NYS Berry Growers Association, and more on:

SWD Overview
Exclusion Netting

  • Blueberry growing under netting
  • Attract-and-kill baited spheres
  • High-tunnel raspberries grown in excluded tunne
  • Fall raspberries under netting

Weather Station Networks

  • What is NEWA?
  • How farmers can get their own RainWise weather station
  • How applications that are part of weather data can assist farmers
  • MesoNet, and how it works with NEWA

Climate Change and Protected Culture

  • CICSS as a resource, and helpful tools for berry growers
  • Soil health project, including how growers can get involved

Low-Tunnel Strawberry Production

  • Overview of day-neutral production system
  • Use of low tunnels on a diversified, direct-market farm

Wrap-Up and Q&A


This workshop is FREE to all berry growers, regardless of region or level of experience, so spread the word to your colleagues!

Register here. 
 

Blueberries Offer a Host of Health Benefits, Including Improved Cognitive Function

New York State berry growers health benefits of blueberries

Blueberries Offer a Host of Health Benefits

It’s no secret that a colorful fruits, especially blueberries, offer a variety of health benefits. From reduced risk of debilitating diseases to improved complexion and hair, blueberries are a nutritional powerhouse that have significant positive effects on human health. And new studies are showing that blueberries can even enhance cognitive function. With summer—and fresh berries—due to arrive in farmers’ markets and on farm stand shelves in a little more than a month, there’s never been a better time to incorporate fresh, local blueberries into your diet. 

Blueberries are chock-full of many health-promoting vitamins and compounds, including anthocyanins, a flavonoid that has been linked to protection against free radical damage and a decreased risk of cancer, obesity, and diabetes. The blueberry is also known to support heart health, with high levels of fiber, potassium, folate, vitamin C, and vitamin B6. Likewise, this humble fruit’s high levels of potassium, calcium, and magnesium all help to decrease blood pressure. Blueberries are also high in vitamin K, which improves calcium absorption—a low intake of which has been linked to an increased risk of bone fracture. Some studies even suggest that regular eating of blueberries can promote healthy skin and hair, increase energy, and contribute to weight loss.

Recent studies have demonstrated the blueberry’s positive effect on cognitive function. A pair of 2014 studies found that consumption of blueberries can improve short-term memory loss and motor coordination, and in patients with the neurodegenerative disorder Parkinson’s disease, consumption of blueberries has been linked to a reduced risk of cognitive decline.  Another study found that blueberries (in a freeze-dried powder form) may also have an effect on the onset of the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease. “The blueberry group demonstrated improved memory and improved access to words and concepts,” concluded lead author Robert Krikorian.

The latest study, published in March 2017 in the European Journal of Nutrition, provided more evidence that blueberry consumption improves cognitive function. The authors found that adults age 60 to 75 who consumed 24 grams of freeze-dried blueberry powder (the equivalent of one cup fresh berries) daily showed significant improvement in verbal memory, repetition, and task switching over their placebo-group counterparts.

New York State berry growers local berries health benefits blueberries

Blueberry Nutrition at a Glance
A 1-cup serving of blueberries contains:

  • 84 calories
  • 3.6 grams of dietary fiber (14% of daily requirement)
  • 0 grams of cholesterol
  • 1.1 grams of protein
  • .49 grams of fat
  • 21 grams of carbohydrate
  • 24% of an adult's recommended daily allowance of vitamin C, 5% of vitamin B6, and 36% of vitamin K
  • Iron, calcium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, manganese, zinc, copper, folate, beta-carotene, folate, choline, vitamin A, vitamin E
  • Phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity, including anthocyanins, quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin and chlorogenic acid

 

Traveling Professors

New York State Berry Growers Association Marvin Pritts chin state research

Traveling Professors

How Overseas Research & Information Sharing Benefits Our Farms

By Marvin Pritts

Ever wonder what those Cornell professors do when they run off to another country? Oftentimes it’s to attend a conference, but occasionally we are asked to help a particular group of farmers with their production practices. Some may ask if we should be helping farmers in other countries—won’t they just end up competing with us in New York? And given that there are problems here at home, shouldn’t Cornell faculty just stay put and work on solving local problems?

In April, I had a chance to visit Chin State in the country of Myanmar. This country has been relatively isolated from the rest of the world, as it was under a military dictatorship for 50 years. Recently, it has had elections, so a democratic government is now in place. However, some of the outlying regions continue to have ethnic violence. Chin signed a peace treaty with the federal government in 2016, so it is now safe for foreigners to enter.

New York State Berry Growers Association Marvin Pritts farming research

 

Although it is now safe to travel to Chin, this region has been cut off from the rest of Myanmar, and the world, for most of its existence. There is no real industry in Chin State. Travel to the capital city, Hakha, is an 11-hour drive on dirt roads from the nearest city with an airport (which has just one flight a day). Farming villages are even farther from Hahka. The roads in this state are one-lane, steep, and curved, with no guardrails and 1,000-foot dropoffs. During the rainy season, roads become impassable because of mud and landslides. Most of the country speaks Burmese and is Buddhist, while many different languages are spoken in Chin and Chin people are mostly Christian. All of these differences reinforce the isolation and makes education in this region difficult.

There is little to no flat land in Chin State. The hillsides are too steep for most grazing animals, except for goats. But having goats is risky, because they can escape through fences and eat valuable crops. The rain stops after the rainy season, so farmers then endure six months of drought. The capital city is too far to take goods to market, especially given the state of the roads.

People who live in villages in Chin are malnourished. It is estimated that 40 percent of the population suffers from protein, vitamin, and mineral deficiencies. Our task was to visit these villages, determine if anything could be done to help increase fruit and vegetable production and consumption, train extension educators, and advise about the curriculum used in the state agriculture institutes and the agricultural university at Yezin.

New York State Berry Growers Assocation Marvin Pritts myanmar farming research

 

The people of Chin State were exceptionally friendly and open to new ideas. We shared information and techniques for drip irrigation, sources of nitrogen fertilizer, soil management, postharvest handling, and garden design, and I hope these will gain traction and be implemented. Farmers in the United States do not have to fear competition from a country that is struggling to feed itself.

Such activities in developing countries help spread Cornell’s reputation abroad. It also could pay dividends for us in the future. For example, apple and pear germ plasm grow wild in the hills. Developing a good relationship with Myanmar could give us access to new germplasm in the future. Establishing such relationships increases the probability that bright students will come to the United States to study. Also, when we can work with growers in another country to reduce their pesticide use and minimize environmental impacts, it benefits all of us. Myanmar is strategically located between China and India, so having friendly relations with them is politically beneficial. Finally, it is simply the right thing to do.

New York State Berry Growers Association Marvin Pritts farming research myanmar chin state

 

So while spending time in developing countries may not appear to benefit New York growers, we are laying the groundwork for future dividends to be paid.